Sept 3 notes

I. Eukaryotes
a. cells that have nuclei
i. nucleus: hold DNA and membrane bound phospholipid boundary around the nucleus
b. type
i. Fungi- macroscopic: mushrooms Microscopic: mold
ii. Parasites- cause disease ex. African sleeping sickness, malaria, L. giardia
iii. Plants
iv. Animals
II. Prokaryotic
a. non-membrane bound nucleus
b. DNA bunched up in cell
c. Types
i. archaea
a. components
i. cell membrane
ii. RNA polymerase (like that of eukaryotes)- enzyme that copies DNA to RNA
b. extremophiles (organisms that love/lives in extreme conditions (Ex. Temp and pH)
c. thought to be very similar to first cells on earth
d. thought to be more closely related to eukaryotes than bacteria b/c of…
i. genetic material similarities
ii. cell membrane of archaeal cells are similar to that of eukaryotes
ii. Bacteria
a. gram (+)
i. plasma membrane- phospholipid bilayer
ii. cell wall
a. made of peptidoglycan- composed of AA and glucose
i. can be >30 layers
ii. Contains LTA
b. gram (-)
i. plasma membrane
a.contains peptidoglycan and no LTA less or = to 5 layers
b. outer membrane
i. contains
a. phospholipid bilayer
b. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- made of fats and sugars
i. 3 sections = o-antigan, core, and lipid A
c. Acid Fast
i. plasma membrane
ii. cell wall- contains peptidoglycan and LTA
iii. Mycolic acid membrane- waxy layer, can't be gram-stained
iv. CON's of the microbe
a. can't be stained
b. survive well in the environment
c. hard for immune system to kill
d. mycoplasmas
i. no cell wall
ii. plasma membrane or 2
iii. no regular shape
III. Non-cellular organism
a. viruses
i. not cells
ii. genetic material surrounded by proteins
iii. no organelles
iv. no metabolism
vi. no RNA polymerase (can't replicate)

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License