Sept. 8 notes

I. Non-cellular organisms
a. Viruses: NOT CELLS. Genetic material wrapped in proteins that need a host's ribosomes and enzymes to replicate.
i. DNA virus ex: herpes simplex 1 (cold sores)
ii. RNA viruses:
1. retroviruses: have RNA genenome, use host cells to transcribe RNA to DNA then back to RNA. They often cause cancer. HIV is also an example
iii. Viroids: loops of DNA that copy in the host cell
b. Prions: self-replicating protein, ex: mad cow disease, converts other proteins into prions and can't be killed with heat because it is already denatured
*Protein's function is based on its shape. The shape of the proteinis based on amino acid sequence and environment conditions (pH, temp)

II. Bacterial sizes
a. Units of measurement: micrometer (1/1,000,000 meter) virus is measured in nanometers (1/1,000,000,000
b. Average bacterium compared to average eukaryotic cell: usually bacteria is smaller
Bacteria is mostly ~2 micrometers
RBC (small eukaryotic cell ~10 micrometers
c. Large bacterial species: Epulopsiclum: is 1mm in diameter

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