review session


Wednesday 5:00 pm
Thursday 4:00 pm

Here are notes from the review session on Wednesday:
Eukaryotic viruses
• Polyhedral or helical NEVER complex
• May be enveloped
• May have DNA or RNA genomes

  • can be polyhedral, helical, or complex
  • NEVER enveloped
  • usually DNA genomes

Example exam question:
S. aureus is gram +, lives in respiratory tract of 35% of adults without causing symptoms, can grow in blood, @ 37
a) S. aureus has a mycolic acid layer, protecting it from desiccation. FALSE
b) S. aureus contains lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in its cell wall. TRUE
c) S. aureus is an anerobe. FALSE
d) S. aureus has only one sigma factor. FALSE
e) S. aureus likely caused disease in more people in the past. FALSE
f) Compared to T. aquaticus, a bacterium that lives at 100 o C, S. aureus has less G & C in its genome. TRUE
g) A S. aureus infection could be treated with vancomycin. TRUE

Antibiotics and targets:
Vancomycin & anything that ends in –cillin( lactam antibiotic)attack the peptidogylcan layer, gram( +) are therefore susceptible, gram( – )protected from vancomycin by outer membrane
Tetracycline & Azithromycin(Zinthromax)attack bacterial ribosomes

Ciprofloxacinattack DNA gyrase & topoisomerase IV

Rifampinattacks bacterial RNA polymerase

Isoniazid(acid fast antibiotic=TB)attacks mycolic acid synthesis

We have very few anti-viral medications because viruses use our cells to replicate so in order to kill them we have to kill our cells. The few we do have target enzymes that are specific to viruses.

Questions on papers:
Sampling the antibiotic resistome fig. 2
S. coelicolor K
#151 A

• Original codon was AAA(TTT) or AAG(TTC)
• Mutation to AAC(TTG) or AAU(TTA) would result in asn instead of lsy
• So DNA mutation must have been from TTT or TTC to TTG or TTA

Gene expression essay question:
1) How does q.s. work?
2) What are the q.s. phenotype genes in P. aeruginosa?
Answer to 1):
1) Q.s bacteria express genes for autoinducers & AI receptors always, continuously
2) AI binding to AI-R, leads to a change in gene expression( a change in what genes are transcribed & translated)
3) AI only likely to bind to AI-R at high bact. pop. densities(so this is why bact. at high pop. densities have different traits than same bact. @ low pop. densities)
Answer to 2):
1) Rhamnolipid & pyocyanin genes

I was wondering if anyone could post their notes from the review session. I knew i wouldn't be able to come tonight but something came up yesterday and i couldn't make yesterday's review. So it would be cool if someone could help out.
-Cody Kruckenberg

Did anybody take notes from the review yesterday? I have practice today and might not be able to make it during the time scheduled…
-Brady Helmink

Thank you for both of the review sessions for the final! Jamie and I both have a final Thursday night and I have a final earlier Thursday, so I definitely needed the one on Wednesday… thank you Dr. R!!!!

I am also happy with having the final review with both days. because i have a test on wednesday that will go into some of the review on wednesday night so i will be able to get to all of it. sweet
- Brandon Waszgis

I agree it will be good having two sessions so we can get alot of time to ask questions and not have to worry about only asking them on one day.
-Brice Buryanek

THANKS! b/c i know there are a few of us who can make it only for a hour or so each time. so both of them are going to be great help.
shelby pomerenke

I agree! Two sessions allows everyone to come and plenty of time to ask qustions and clarify any thing you don't understand
-Becky Lenhart

I went to the review session last night and it was a great refresher and it allows everyones brains can catch up with all the new information too. Thanks Dr. Robson for hookin' us up!
-Colin Schroeder

I would suggest that everyone who can should go to the review session tonight. The one last night helped out alot and gave us great information and touch ups on older information.
-Brice Buryan
I really like the review session, it help a lot. Thanks Dr.Robson
-Nhung Nguyen

I really think that I learned a lot tonight at the review session.. It was really interesting to go over all of the stuff that we learned early in the year.. I am glad I went
-Brandon Waszgis

I have learned a ton from going to both the review sessions, now i have to put it all in my brain and remember it for tomorrow!!!
-Becky Lenhart

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