October 31, 2008

1. Viruses are neucleic acid (DNA or RNA genome) wrapped in protein
2. Human protection against viruses
a. Immune defenses
i. Acquired immunity: exposed to virusesmake antibodies; if re-exposed, won’t get sick
ii. Very few antiviral drugs
b. Vaccination: allows us to have an acquired immune response without getting sick
i. Introduces killed/disabled version of virus to immune system so body can create antibodies against it
c. Disease eradication: traits diseases have in order to be potentially eradicable
i. If disease caused by microbe that relies on host to reproduce; if you can keep microbe (that needs host cell)
ii. from spreading for 1 cycle, you can wipe it out forever
3. Smallpox
a. Large virus
b. Double stranded DNA genome
c. Humans are only host
i. Cause pus filled blisters throughout inside/outside of body, high fever, coughing, vomiting
ii. Mortality rate experienced population~30%
iii. Mortality rate naive population~90%
4. The smallpox eradication campaign
a. The smallpox vaccine
i. Based on live cowpox virus
ii. Very effective
iii. Side effects: kills about 1 in 1million people vaccinated; get 1cm blister at vaccination site
b. The plan was to get rid of smallpox in the whole world
c. The victory
i. 1977 smallpox was eradicated all over the world
ii. Stopped vaccinating for smallpox
d. The tragedy
i. 2 major powers (US and Soviet Union) keep smallpox virus
ii. US is under lock and key in Georgia
iii. Soviet Union doesn’t keep smallpox virus under lock and key
5. The end of smallpox

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