Exam 4 Answers to Questions

4. capsid-
capsomere— makes up the capsid, circular structures when your drawing a virus

7. glycoproteins assist in cell ashesion, helping to allow the virus to attach to the cell. Side note- glycoproteins is part of viruses that the body recognizes as a viral structure, so when your drawing a virus on the final and it asked whether glycoproteins are viral or host they are viral components.
17. HIV is an example of a retrovirus. Retroviruses are RNA viruses that incorperate their RNA into the host DNA to copy their genetic material then the DNA is copied and turned back into RNA. These viruses are very hard to treat because during this process from RNA to DNA back to RNA its is prone to mutations, so if a drug works one day it may not work the next day if the gentic material mutate the part of the bacteria that the drug is attacking. this is way HIV is commonly treated with a drug cocktail (3 drugs are so at once).
15. smallpox, HPV
-Brice Buryanek
18. what are glycoproteins and where are they found?
glycoproteins are protein that attach the enveloped virus's membrane to it capsid. it also allow the enveloped virus to attach to host cell and they can only be found in an enveloped virus.
20. viruses are classified based on what?
22. what is it called that makes RNA go to DNA?
reverse transcriptase
23. Who synthesized polio genome?
-nhung nguyen
25. Streptococcus pyogenes is gram positive or negative?
- gram negative
- nhung nguyen
28. host or viral recognition
glycoprotein = viral
capsomere = Viral
capsid = Viral
DNA/RNA = Viral
membrane = Host

29. 1) The virus will attach to the surface of the host cell, in some cases with the help of glycoproteins but not sure if it uses this in all viruses 2) the virus implants its genetic material (DNA or RNA) into the host 3) genetic material is replicated along with viral proteins 4) the viral makes the cell generated proteins and such that will form new viruses within the host 5) the new viruses are released out of the host to infect new victums!

30. Two bacteria I remember that quorum sense are V. fisheri and P. aeruginosa

31. Having more C and G base pairs in one geneome will allow a bacteria's DNA to with stand a higher temperature without unzipping. The is seen on bacteria that are extremaphiles (not sure on spelling) that live in hot!! environments like hot springs or something. The reason for this ability is the 3 hydrogen bonds between GC and only two hydrogen bonds between AT.

32. Similar to 31 AT and only have the 2 hyrdogen bonds that connect the bases in DNA so AT will be easier to break. This is why when bacterial DNA is seperated when being repliated their is a larger number of AT then GC.

33. ii. Rules
1. Must find microbe in every patient w/ disease
2. Culture microbe and grow in pure culture: Grow the germ w/o anything else
3. Inoculate healthy organism w/ microbe, see same symptoms
4. Need to re-culture the same microbe from the experimental infected organism

34. these bacterial structure help to prevent phagocytosis
mycolic acid
crystalline surface layers

35. bacterial growth phases
Lag, phase, this is the time when the bacteria are producing all the proper enzymes for replication and growth is not large in numbers. Exponential phase, this is when the bacteria are constantly replicating and number are rapidly raising since there is an abundance of nutrients available and the number of enzymes needed are already made and the population just continues to grow. Stationary phase is when the bacterial numbers level off and can only support the amount of bacteria alive. Death phase is the final phase of the bacterial growth curve and this is when the bacterial death is greater then the amount of new bacteria being generated; this is because the nutrients are not sufficient to support the population die and in some cases commit suicide for the good of the group!!

Anyone have the answers to the essays??

yea has any1 got the courage to post their answers to the essay questions?

To help on Essay one I posted when some of they antibiotics attack on the notes from revenge of the microbes book tag.

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