Alex's policy paper

Permann 23 September 2008
Policy on Non-Therapeutic Antibiotic Use in Animal Feeds
Since their first application many years ago, antibiotics have increased immensely in variety and availability. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistant bacteria have also increased in numbers over this time period as well. Many scientists believe that the widespread exposure of antibiotics fosters the increase existence of antibiotic resistant bacteria1. Today, antibiotics have a wide range of purposes including acting as a catalyst for growth and weight gain in livestock. In the United States, over twelve different antibiotics are being mixed into animal feed for the purpose of enlargement7. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, livestock lead the nation in antibiotic use2. Most of these cases are for non-therapeutic purposes2.
The bacterial exposure to antibiotics is the issue that needs to be addressed as it is becoming a human health concern. Currently, there are 17 antibiotics approved for farm animal growth promotion, and many of these are vital to the treatment of infectious disease in humans5. Penicillin and tetracycline are examples of important antibiotics currently being used for non-healing means in animals3. These antibiotics are commonly applied to treat conditions in humans such as meningitis, rosacea, and pneumonia. Ciprofloxacin is another antibiotic used in livestock, particularly chickens3. Before its use in chickens, cipro effectively treated Campylobacter, bacteria that caused severe gastric pains. A cipro-resistant form of Campylobacter came into existence only after the antibiotic was being used in poultry3.
In 1998, a number of European countries took a step toward resolving the situation by banning the use of some antibiotics for non-therapeutic means in animals5. East-Man Feeds USA, Ltd. will take similar necessary measures to ensure our animal growth products do not endanger the future of human health. By establishing a policy that would eliminate the non-healing use of antibiotics in our feed products, East-Man Feeds feels this is the next step in decreasing the rate at which antibiotic-resistant bacteria grow. The guidelines of this policy will eliminate the future non-curative use of antibiotics in all of our products which include swine, cattle, bison, poultry, and pet feeds.

I. POLICY
A. East-Man Feeds USA, Ltd. will no longer purchase pharmaceuticals with the intent to distribute for non-therapeutic means. This clause pertains to the current purchases of AS 700. This does not pertain to the purchases of Rumesin (monensin sodium).
B. Current production and distribution of animal feeds with AS 700 or other antibiotics for non-curative uses will be halted. Customer orders will be refunded accordingly. In addition, unmixed antibiotics will be returned to the supplier.
C. On hand products with AS 700 and other antibiotics used non-curatively will be discarded. These mixed products will be packaged in sealed containers and stored in disinfected areas.
Certain East-Man Feed growth promoting products contain AS 700 which is composed of two antibiotics: chlorotetracycline and sulfamethazine6. Studies have shown that bacteria have developed resistance to tetracycline from being exposed to a combination of chlorotetracycline and sulfamethazine4. East-Man Feed will continue processing feeds containing Rumensin because exposure of this antibiotic to bacteria is not known to pose a threat to human health. Currently, Rumensin keeps human consumption safe and no known human treatments exists2.
Today, original antibiotics are losing their battle against infectious diseases caused by resistant bacteria. To help the cause against antibiotic resistant bacteria, East-Man Feeds USA, Ltd. must eliminate the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feeds. These established guidelines will help keep bacteria susceptible to antibiotics and show that EMF is doing its part in the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria.

References
1. Burgos, J. M., Ellington, B. A., & Varela M. F. (2005). Presence of Multidrug Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Dairy Farm Topsoil. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 1391-1398. Retrieved September 22, 2008 from http://jds.fass.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/1391
2. Gonzalez, M., Barkema, H.W., Keefe, G.P., (2005, October) Monensin toxicosis in a dairy herd. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 46(10) 910-912. Retrieved October 5, 2008 from PubMed Central database.
3. HSUS (2007, March 12). An HSUS Report: Human Health Implications of Non-Therapeutic Antibiotic Use in Animal Agriculture. Retrieved September 22, 2008 from http://www.hsus.org/farm/resources/research/pubhealth/human_health_antibiotics.html
4. Inglis, G.D., McAllister, T.A., Busz, H.W., Yanke, L.J., Morck, D.W., Olsen, M.E., et al (2005, July). Effects of Subtherapueutic Administration of Antimicrobial Agents to Beef Cattle on the Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hyoitestinalis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(7): 3872–3881. Retrieved October 5, 2008 from PubMed Central database.
5. Knobler, S., et al. (2003) Public Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Agriculture. In The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health Strategies for Containment (appendix A). Retrieved September 23, 2008 from http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10651&page=231
6. Land O Lakes (2004, April). Beef Crumbles AS-700. Retrieved October 5, 2008 from http://www.beeflinks.com/Manual/2180008.pdf
7. Sapkota, Amy, et al. (2007, May) What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(5). Retrieved September 22, 2008 from http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/9760/9760.pdf

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